August 7/8 to 23/24 Meteors

Hello everyone!

I’m back from a few relaxing weeks visiting family and friends in Italy. Since it has been a few weeks since my last post, I will try to catch up with the latest meteor and comet news.

I debated whether to leave my cameras up and running while I was gone. The MetRec software that I use for meteor detection is more than capable of running autonomously for long stretches of time. If it had been any time of the year other than summer, I would have done that. But August is still hot in Tucson with temps still routinely hitting 100+. Since my computers are located in a non-temperature controlled room that can get very hot, I decided not to push my luck and risk coming home to 2 cooked computers.

This means I missed a great Perseid display (I’ll summarize what others saw in a later post). Luckily Bob Lunsford’s camera was up and running. He was able to catch one of the 2 big Perseid peak nights.

Bob’s notes from the night of August 11/12: “I took my system to dark skies near Alpine, CA to view the Perseid maximum. I managed to record 176 meteors during the 4 hour session. This included a slight outburst near 1am PDT when the Earth crossed particles produced in 1610 from the Perseid parent comet Swift-Tuttle. The counts could have been more had it not been for cirrus clouds present during the first hour of the session and bright moonlight, which was present all 4 hours.”

SDG 2009-08-24 08h 08m  50  43  6               1   0
SDG 2009-08-23 02h 41m  5   5   0               0   0
SDG 2009-08-21 06h 55m  33  24  2               6   1
SDG 2009-08-20 03h 00m  3   2   1               0   0
SDG 2009-08-18 03h 00m  5   3   0               1   1
SDG 2009-08-17 02h 30m  6   3   1               2   0
SDG 2009-08-12 04h 02m 176  21  3   1       9  142  0
SDG 2009-08-09 04h 00m  9   4   0   0   1   0   3   1
TUS 2009-08-08 07h 49m  17  8   0   0   0   1   8   0
SDG 2009-08-08 08h 24m  40  24  0   0   1   3   12

TUS – Camera in Tucson operated by Carl Hergenrother
SDG – Camera in San Diego operated by Bob Lunsford
TotTime – Total amount of time each camera looked for meteors
TOT – Total number of meteors detected
SPOSporadics (meteors not affiliated with any particular meteor shower)
ANT – Antihelions
CAP – Alpha Capricornids
PAU – Piscids Australids
SDA – Southern Delta Aquariids
PER – Perseids
KCG – Kappa Cygnids

Meteor or Not?

Below are a collection of YouTubevideos of meteors and phenomenon that are mistaken for meteors. First some real, albeit very bright, meteors or fireballs.

Australia Fireball

1972 Daylight Fireball

1992 Peekskill Meteorite

Meteor Compilation

The next few videos are related to meteors but involve the re-entry of man-made spacecraft rather than small natural bodies.

Jule Verne Re-Entry

Russian Rocket Re-Entry

Shuttle Break-up

Shuttle Re-Entry

The final video is of an object going up into space rather then coming down. This is of a rocket launch from the USAF Vandenberg AFB in southern California. I have seen a few of these launches from Tucson.  Even though we’re 100s of miles away, launches can be easy to see if the lighting is right.

Rocket Launch

The Tucson-based SALSA Meteor Camera

The SALSA systems are my camera set-ups for the autonomous detection of meteors. SALSA is a rather tongue-in-cheek acronym that stands for “Search for Alien Lights over Southern Arizona”. And it does a great job of detecting “alien lights”. In addition to meteors, the camera also detects lots of birds, bugs, bats, airplanes, helicopters, clouds and the occasional flaring satellite. Every morning I need to examine the data and toss out the non-meteor detections.

SALSA is based on the Supercircuits PC164CEX-2 video surveillance camera. The camera is equipped with a 1/3″ Sony ExView CCD detector. The camera produces a 60 Hz video signal, meaning 1 image every second though only every other image is analyzed by the meteor recognition software. The cameras are small and designed for low light level survelliance. They are also relatively cheap at ~$130, that is compared to most astronomical cameras.


Originally, I used the Supercircuits PC164C camera which is not as sensitive as the PC164CEX-2. Many meteor observers use the Watec 902H2 Ultimate for their observations. Those cameras have larger detectors which allow one to either cover more sky than the PC164CEX-2 or to cover the same amount of area but with a larger lens allowing more one to detect fainter meteors. They are also more expensive (~$310) which is why I have been using  the PC164C series cameras. In the future, I will probably upgarde to the Watec cameras.

For lenses, I use Computar 4mm f/1.2 1/3″ lenses (they usually go for ~$15-50 on Ebay). The camera/lens set-up gives a FOV of ~50×60 deg down to ~2nd-3rd magnitude. So nowhere near all-sky but it gets me enough meteors to monitor the showers.

The cameras are part of the International Meteor Organizations Video Meteor Network which is run by Sirko Molau of Germany. Sirko wrote and provides the automatic detection software called MetRec (which is free). Sirko also collects all of the observations and publishes monthly and annual summaries.

You can read more about the software and the network here:

IMO Video Meteor Network Homepage

MetRec software homepage

IMO Video Meteor Network Monthly reports

The software only runs with Windows 98 (though a version that runs on more modern Windows distros is in beta testing). MetRec also can only be used with a Matrox Meteor I or II card. It is this requirement that is the most problematic since the cards are no longer made and must be purchased used off of EBay (~$150, though lately some have been going for much cheaper). Sirko usually has a number of these cards available for purchase.

Other than that, I have an all-weather surveillance camera housing so the camera can survive the elements and use regular S-video cables to connect the cameras and computers.

The MetRec software runs all night without any supervision. It is good at picking up objects moving at meteor rates (including planes, bugs, bats, clouds…). In the morning I go through the detections and identify the actual meteors (that can take from 5-15 minutes).
MetRec also identifies which shower, if any, each meteor is a member of.

Bob’s camera set-up includes an image intensifier and can be seen here.

As you’ll see from the above webpages, this is mostly a European operation. Bob and I are the only US members. We could definitely use more cameras over on this side of the Atlantic.

There are also a large number of all-sky fireball cameras throughout the US. They are part of the Sandia Research Lab’s Sentinel system.

These system don’t detect meteors as faint as the SALSA cameras but they do cover the entire sky. As a result, this system is great for detecting large bright fireballs especially ones that can produce meteorites.

Taking a Break…

I will be taking a break from blogging for the next few weeks. That will mean that I will be missing the Perseid peak.

So for the rest of the month, postings will be sparse. I do have 2 postings scheduled to be published over the next 2 weeks.

The plan is to be back at the end of August with the usual daily updates on what’s going on up in the sky.

So till then, enjoy the rest of the summer.

August 4/5/6/7 Meteors

After a couple nights of rain and clouds, it has cleared out again in Tucson. Last night was probably a nice night of meteors but I forgot to turn my cameras on.

Luckily Bob has better luck and a better memory in SDG. From Bob’s notes: “After a couple of partly cloudy nights, skies cleared enough to allow observations from home. Fog rolled in just before the start of twilight, ending the session 15 minutes prematurely. No Delta Aquarids were recorded tonight, which is strange as this shower continues for at least another week.”

TUS 2009-08-07 00h 00m  Forgot to turn on cameras!
TUS 2009-08-06 00h 00m  Clouds all night
SDG 2009-08-06 07h 15m  30  11  2   3   2   11  1
TUS 2009-08-05 00h 00m  Clouds all night

TUS – Camera in Tucson operated by Carl Hergenrother
SDG – Camera in San Diego operated by Bob Lunsford
TotTime – Total amount of time each camera looked for meteors
TOT – Total number of meteors detected
SPOSporadics (meteors not affiliated with any particular meteor shower)
ANT – Antihelions
CAP – Alpha Capricornids
SDA – Southern Delta Aquariids
PER – Perseids
KCG – Kappa Cygnids

In the Sky This Month – August 2009

This feature highlights a number of meteor showers, comets and asteroids which are visible during the month of August 2009. The big attraction this month is brilliant Jupiter, visible in the southeast sky during the evening, and the Perseid meteor shower.

Note: If anyone has pictures or observations of these objects/events and want to share them, send me a comment. I’ll post them here.


Mercury - Mercury is in the midst of a poor evening apparition for northern hemisphere observers. In contrast, southern hemisphere observers will see a great display. Mercury will appear as bright as some of the brightest stars low in the western sky during evening twilight. Only folks with clear views of the horizon have a chance at seeing it. Don’t worry if you can’t, this is Mercury’s worst apparition for northerners and there will be better opportunities.

Aug 2 – Mercury and 1st magnitude star Regulus are within 0.6° of each other
Aug 17 - Mercury and Saturn within 3° of each other
Aug 22 – Moon passes 3° from Mercury

Saturn – This is the last month to see Saturn in the evening sky this year and the last chance to see it at all until November when it will be a morning object. Saturn is located low in the Western sky during twilight. At magnitude +1.1, it is not much brighter than some of the brightest stars in that part of the sky.

For those of you with access to telescopes, you will see that its rings are barely open and almost edge-on. This is the narrowest the rings will appear from Earth for the next 15 years. Though the rings are over 70,000 kilometers (43,500 miles) wide, they are only 10 meters (33 feet) thick. Since the rings are seen edge, or width, on during ring plane crossings, they can actually appear to disappear in most telescopes. The last time this happened was in 1995. This year the crossing happens on Sept 4 when Saturn is too close to the Sun to be observed. Still, the rings will appear very narrow and line-like this month.

Aug 17 – Saturn and Mercury within 3° of each other
Aug 22 – Thin crescent Moon within 6° of Saturn

Jupiter and Neptune -Jupiter is the planet highlight of the month. Based on the comments left on this blog, many people have been noticing Jupiter in the southeast sky during the evening. At magnitude -2.8, Jupiter is ~13 times brighter than the brightest stars in the sky this month. Of all the planets, only Venus, and on very rare occasions Mars, are brighter.

Jupiter rises during evening twilight and is highest in the sky aaround midnight. Due to Jupiter’s location in the southern constellation of Capricornus , it never gets very high this year.

For those with a telescope or binoculars and a dark sky, Neptune is located within 1/2 to 3/4 degrees of Jupiter. Jupiter will be a bright magnitude -2.8 while Neptune will be a faint +7.8. That makes Jupiter over ~17,000 times brighter than Neptune. Even Jupiter’s 4 large Galilean moons are about a dozen times brighter than Neptune even though they are much smaller. The big reason for the faintness of Neptune is its distance from both the Earth and Sun. It is roughly 6 times further away from us and the Sun as Jupiter. The distance also explains its apparent small size of 2.3″. A good sized telescope will be required to see Neptune as anything other than a faint star.

Image of Jupiter by Bob Lunsford from early May 2009. Note one of its moons near the left edge.

Though Neptune wasn’t discovered until 1846, it was actually observed by Galileo on two occasions in 1612 and 1613. Similar to this month’s circumstances, Jupiter was passing very close to Neptune. Galileo observed and recorded Neptune as a star in the vicinity of Jupiter. There is also evidence that he noticed that Neptune had moved but didn’t follow up on it. So when you observe these 2 planets imagine what Galileo must have been thinking nearly 400 years ago.

Aug 6 – Full Moon passes within 3° of Jupiter and Neptune
Aug 14
– Jupiter at opposition (meaning Jupiter is closest to Earth, at its brightest for the year and visible all night long)
Aug 17 – Neptune at opposition

Uranus – Uranus is located in western Pisces. It is bright enough to be seen in small binoculars at magnitude +5.8 but will still require a telescope in order to see it as anything other than a star (it’s disk is only 3.5″ across).

Aug 9 – Moon within 5° of Uranus

Mars – Many of you may have received an email or read stories about how Mars is going to be big and bright this month. Some stories suggest that it will rival the Full Moon in size. Well, it’s all bull. This story has been circulating around the internet every year since August of 2003 when Mars did have a closer than usual (but not unusual) approach to Earth. For some reason the email story gets re-circulated every year with only the year changed. Also note that the email was never factual. Even in August of 2003, Mars never got as bright as the Moon. It did get as bright as it ever gets which is a little brighter than Jupiter appears this month.

Mars can be seen in the eastern sky a few hours before sunrise. It rises between 1 and 1:30 am all month long though it won’t get high enough to clear most trees and building till about 3 am. At magnitude +1.1, its brightness matches those of many of the bright stars in the 2 constellations it is moving through this month, Taurus and Gemini.

Aug 16 – Moon within 3° of Mars

Venus - Venus continues to slowly climb higher every night. It is currently a morning object and is best seen an hour before sunrise low in the eastern sky. For Southern Hemisphere observers, it has already peaked for this apparition and is slowly dropping back towards the horizon. For Northern observers, Venus will continue to climb higher until early August. It rises between 3am and 4am for most observers though it will be low in the eastern sky the while time. For binocular and telescope users, Venus is now in a gibbous phase (between half and full) and is slowly shrinking as it moves further away from Earth.

Aug 17 – Moon within 2° of Venus


August is one of the best months for meteor activity. The year is usually split in 2 with January through June having low rates with few major showers while July through December (really through the 1st week of January) have high rates with many major showers.

Sporadic Meteors

Sporadic meteors are not part of any known meteor shower. They represent the background flux of meteors. Except for the few days per year when a major shower is active, most meteors that are observed are Sporadics. This is especially true for meteors observed during the evening. During August, 12 or so Sporadic meteors can be observed per hour from a dark moonless sky.

Major Meteor Showers

Perseids (PER) [Date range = July 17 - Aug 24, Max = Aug 12]

The Perseids are one of the best meteor showers of the year and rarely disappoint. This year’s display will bring a mixed bag. On one hand, the Moon will be nearly full and poorly placed. The Moon’s bright light will drown out many of the fainter Perseids bringing the number of visible meteors down significantly. On the other hand, there are predictions that this years’s display will be richer than usual. Meteor stream models predict increased rates around 0800 and 0900 UT on the morning of August 12 (4:00-5:00 EDT, 1:00-2:00 am PDT). The reason is a ribbon, or filament, of dust produced by the Perseid parent Comet Swift-Tuttle in 1610. Some predictions are calling for a ZHR rates of 200 which is twice as good as the usual rates of 60-120. Of course, those rates are only valid for a very dark sky with no Moon. Still rates of 30 per hour may be possible for many non-urban locations.

Minor Meteor Showers

Minor showers produce so few meteors that they are hard to notice above the background of regular meteors.

Southern δ-Aquarids (SDA) [Date range = July 12 - Aug 19, Max = July 28]

The Southern δ-Aquarid shower peaked in late July. There should still be significant activity from this shower in early August. By the middle of the month, all activity should be over. They are part of the Machholz complex of asteroids, comets and meteor showers that are the result of the breakup of a single comet into hundreds of smaller objects over the past thousands of years. The complex includes comet 96P/Machholz, the suspected extinct comet 2003 EH1, hundreds of Marsden and Kracht group comets, and the Quadrantid and Arietid meteor showers.

It is the comets of the Marsden group that are directly resposible for the SDA shower. These small comets have never been observed from Earth. There are only seen by spacecraft that can observe very close to the Sun. Due to the very small perihelion distance of these comets (~0.05 AU) they only get bright enough to be discovered when close to the Sun. Currently there are ~33 comets that are known to be members of the Marsden group.

The shower radiates from RA = 22h 36m, Dec = -16 deg.

Piscis Austrinids (PAU) [Date range = July 15 - Aug 10, Max = July 27]

This shower of unknown parentage is a difficult one for northern observers due to the southern location of its radiant (RA = 22h 44m, Dec = -30deg). Similar to the SDAs and the CAPs below, it is active from mid-July to mid-August with a maximum around July 27. At maximum one can expect 2-4 meteors per hour from a dark site. Rates will be even lower for northern observers.

α-Capricornids (CAP) [Date range = July 3 - Aug 15, Max = July 29]

The CAP is yet another southern shower (RA = 20h 28m, Dec = -10 deg) that is difficult to observe from northern latitudes. With a peak on July 29, it can be expected to produce 3-6 meteors per hour. Unlike the PAUs, the CAPs appear to be associated with a known comet, 169P/NEAT.


Naked Eye Comets (V < 6.0)


Binocular Comets (V = 6.0 – 8.0)


Small Telescope Comets (V = 8.0 – 10.0)

Comet C/2006 W3 (Christensen)

This comet was discovered over 2 years ago on 2006 November 18 by Eric Christensen of the Catalina Sky Survey north of Tucson. At the time the comet was located at 8.7 AU from the Sun which is nearly the distance of Saturn. The comet continues to move closer to the Sun and Earth and is currently 3.8 AU from the Sun and 3.4 AU from the Earth.

The comet is currently around magnitude 8.2 and should be at its brightest this month.  It is moving southeast while paralleling the summer Milky Way. This month the comet will travel through the constellations of Vulpecula, Sagitta and Aquilia. The comet is best seen after 10 pm.

The comet reached perihelion at a rather distant 3.12 AU from the Sun on 2009 July 6. Becuase of its large perihelion distance, the comet will only slowly move away from the Sun and though it will slowly fade from here on out it should remain bright enough to be seen in modest sized backyard telescopes for all of 2009.

A finder chart for Comet Christensen can be found at Comet Chasing and Aktuelle Kometen (in German).

A nice collection of images can be found at the VdS-Fachgruppe Kometen (Comet Section of Germany) and Seiichi Yoshida’s Comet Homepage.

Comet C/2008 Q3 (Garradd)

This is the surprise comet of the summer. From time to time what appears to be a faint run-of-the-mill comet will undergo an outburst and brighten substantially. This is the case with Comet Garradd which was discovered by Gordon Garradd of the Siding Spring Survey (Australia). He used the 0.5-m Uppsala schmidt telescope to discover this comet back on 2008 August 27.

The comet was a faint 19th magnitude at discovery. With perihelion expected on 2009 June 23 at 1.80 AU from the Sun, it was expected to brighten but only to about 12th-14th magnitude. Two weeks ago the comet was sitting at 15th magnitude. Bright enough for CCD imaging but too faint for nearly all visual observers. On April 20th Micheal Jager imaged the comet and found it too be much brighter. Over the next few days, visual observers were able to confirm the outburst and estimated the comet to be as bright as magnitude 8.9.

With perihelion in June, the comet is in full retreat from the Earth and Sun and has faded to 9th magnitude. The comet is slowly moving through western Virgo low in the western sky after evening twilight. This will be the last month to see the comet as it sinks into the twilight sky.

A finder chart for Comet Garradd can be found at Comet Chasing.

A nice collection of images can be found at the VdS-Fachgruppe Kometen (Comet Section of Germany) and Seiichi Yoshida’s Comet Homepage.

Comet C/2008 T2 (Cardinal)

Rob Cardinal, an astronomer at the University of Calgary in Canada, discovered this comet last October. The comet was discovered as part of a survey at  the Rothney Astrophysical Observatory for new Near-Earth asteroids at high declinations. In fact the comet was found within 10 degrees of the North celestial pole. At the time of discovery, the comet was ~14th magnitude.

At perihelion on June 13th, the comet passed within 1.20 AU of the Sun. The comet can only be seen from the Southern Hemisphere as it is located south of the Sun. The comet is currently magnitude 9.0 to 10.0 as it moves southeast from Antilia to Vela and Centaurus in the evening sky. It is too bad the comet is located so far from Earth. At a distance of 1.8 AU from Earth, it is located on the other side of the Sun. If this comet has approached as close as Comet Lulin (0.4 AU) did, Comet Cardinal would be shining at 5th magnitude and be visible to the naked eye from dark locations.

A finder chart for Comet Cardinal can be found at Comet Chasing.

A nice collection of images can be found at the VdS-Fachgruppe Kometen (Comet Section of Germany) and Seiichi Yoshida’s Comet Homepage.


All of the above comets are long-period comets which will not return to the inner Solar System for thousands to millions of years. Comet Kopff is a frequent visitor with an orbital period of 6.4 years. Discovered on 1906 August 20 by August Kopff of Germany, the comet has been observed during every subsequent return except one.

The comet reached perihelion at 1.58 AU from the Sun on May 25. Though now moving away from the Sun, the comet still moving closer to Earth and will be located 0.78 AU from us at the end of the month. Recent observations place the comet at magnitude 9.5 which is about as bright as it will get this apparition. The comet spends August in Aquarius.

A finder chart for Comet Kopff can be found at Comet Chasing.

A nice collection of images can be found at the VdS-Fachgruppe Kometen (Comet Section of Germany) and Seiichi Yoshida’s Comet Homepage.


Binocular and Small Telescope Asteroids (V < 10.0)

(3) Juno

Juno was the 3rd asteroid to be discovered after (1) Ceres and (2) Pallas. It was found by German astronomer Karl Harding on September 1, 1804. With dimensions of 320×267×200 km (192 x 160 x 120 miles) Juno ranks as the 10th largest asteroid in the Main Belt though it is the 2nd largest stony S-type asteroid.

This month it will be moving slowly eastward through Pisces while brightening from magnitude 9.0 to 8.2. Peak brightness will come at opposition on Sept. 22 when Juno will be as bright as magnitude 7.6. A few degrees to the eats of Juno is another bright asteroid, (18) Melpomene which is described in its own section.

A finder chart (needs to be flipped upside down for Northern Hemisphere observers) can be found at the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand. Finder chart for Juno from Heavens Above.

(7) Iris

Iris is an inner Main-Belt asteroid that can occasionally get as bright as any asteroid. This year, Iris did not get as bright but still become a binocular object (albeit a difficult one) at opposition on July 4 at magnitude 8.7. During August, it is located in the constellation of Sagittarius at magnitude 9.3 at the start of the month and magnitude 9.8 at the end.

With a size of 240 x 200 x 200 km, Iris is the 5th largest stoney S-type asteroid. It was discovered in 1847 by John Russel Hind, the 1st of 10 asteroids he discovered.

A finder chart (needs to be flipped upside down for Northern Hemisphere observers) can be found at the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand. Finder chart for Iris from Heavens Above.

(18) Melpomene

Just a few degrees to the east of (3) Juno lies another nice asteroid target for small telescopes. (18) Melpomene is also located in the constellation of Pisces and is only a little bit fainter than Juno, brightening from magnitude  9.4 to 8.7 in August.

Melpomene is another stoney S-type asteroid and similar to Iris was also discovered by John Russel Hind. Found in 1852, it is his 5th of 10 asteroid discoveries.

A finder chart (needs to be flipped upside down for Northern Hemisphere observers) can be found at the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand. Finder chart for Iris from Heavens Above.

August 2/3 Meteors

The clouds are back. Luckily they were light enough that many meteors could still be seen.

Rates are down compared to a few nights ago when my cameras were catching 50-60 meteors per night. The lower rates are due to 3 reasons. 1) The Southern Delta Aquariids and Alpha Capricornids are past their peak. 2) More clouds. 3) As a result of more clouds I changed the parameters on the MetRec detection program.

Usually I set up MetRec to flag any detection moving on 2 sequential images as a possible meteor. Though this does a great job of catching meteors it also catches noise patterns and clouds. If there are lots of fast moving clouds, the software can flag 1000s of them as possible meteors. Needless to say, this takes a lot of time to do through. So if I know that clouds will be around, I change MetRec to only  flag moving objects which occur on 3 consecutive images. That cuts down on the number of false detections by over ~90% but also cuts down on the number of real meteors by ~10-20%.

TUS 2009-08-03 06h 59m  29  13  0   0   4   2   9   0
SDG 2009-08-03 02h 02m  62  40  0   2   6       14  0

TUS – Camera in Tucson operated by Carl Hergenrother
SDG – Camera in San Diego operated by Bob Lunsford
TotTime – Total amount of time each camera looked for meteors
TOT – Total number of meteors detected
SPOSporadics (meteors not affiliated with any particular meteor shower)
ANT – Antihelions
CAP – Alpha Capricornids
SDA – Southern Delta Aquariids
PAU – Piscids Australids
PER – Perseids
KCG – Kappa Cygnids

August 1/2 Meteors

Arizona’s respite from the monsoon continues. The night of July 31/Aug 1 was crystal clear yet again and produced 51 meteors. It is apparent that meteor rates continue to be elevated which is expected for this time of year.

Last night some clouds came through. These clouds were the result of increased humidity as outflow from storms over southern NM blew across the region. All of this is a sign that the monsoon is set to resume in AZ over the next day or two. So don’t be surprised if the number of meteors being detected by my system takes a nosedive again.

TUS  2009-08-02  08h 17m  23  8   0   1   7   0   7
SDG  2009-08-02  01h 56m  58  43  2   1   4       8
TUS  2009-08-01  08h 15m  51  21  1   6   9   2   12
SDG  2009-08-01  04h 00m  117 65  6   4   18  1   23

TUS – Camera in Tucson operated by Carl Hergenrother
SDG – Camera in San Diego operated by Bob Lunsford
TotTime – Total amount of time each camera looked for meteors
TOT – Total number of meteors detected
SPOSporadics (meteors not affiliated with any particular meteor shower)
ANT – Antihelions
CAP – Alpha Capricornids
SDA – Southern Delta Aquariids
PAU – Piscids Australids
PER – Perseids


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