Early October Meteors

A quick perusal of the number of detection by the SALSA3 meteor camera shows nightly rates that range from 1 to 36. While there are natural variations in the number of meteors observed per night, the very low values are mainly due to clouds blocking the sky and resulting in fewer meteors being seen. Case in point, the night of Oct 7 was cloudy and rainy. A sole meteor was detected through the clouds. The meteors must have been fairly bright to have been seen at all.

Of the active showers, the Northern and Southern Taurids (NTA and STA) and Orionids (ORI) contribute about a quarter of all of the meteors during the first part of October. The Orionids will continue to grow more prominent as we approach their Oct 21 peak. This shower is usually a major shower and can produce up a ZHR of up to 60-80. But it also experiences a ~12 year cycle in peak activity due to Jupiter’s gravity moving the densest part of the Orionid dust trail towards and away from Earth’s orbit (ZHR=70 in 2007, ZHR=39 in 2008, ZHR=45 in 2009, ZHR=38 in 2010, ZHR=33 in 2011, ZHR=25 with short bursts to 44 in 2012, ZHR=21 in 2014). This year should continue the recent trend towards low rates though, as in 2012, short lived bursts of greater activity can occur.

Obs Date(UT)     Time    TOT SPO NTA STA ORI SLY DAU EGE OCA GIA Oth
SAL 2015-10-11  10h 59m   33  20  3   3   3   -   -   4   -   -   0
SAL 2015-10-10  09h 41m   20  14  1   3   1   -   0   1   -   0   0
SAL 2015-10-09  09h 02m   20  14  2   2   0   -   0   0   -   2   0
SAL 2015-10-08  11h 12m   29  19  1   2   5   -   1   0   -   1   0
SAL 2015-10-07  00h 09m   1   1   0   0   0   -   0   0   0   0   0
SAL 2015-10-06  07h 58m   17  11  3   1   0   -   1   1   0   0   0
SAL 2015-10-05  06h 28m   13  10  2   0   0   0   0   0   1   -   0
SAL 2015-10-04  06h 39m   16  10  1   4   1   0   0   0   -   -   0
SAL 2015-10-03  10h 34m   34  21  2   4   4   0   1   1   -   -   1
SAL 2015-10-02  10h 11m   36  23  1   6   1   1   0   2   -   -   1
SAL 2015-10-01  10h 59m   35  21  0   2   4   2   3   2   -   -   1


SAL - SALSA3 camera in Tucson (Carl Hergenrother)
VIS - Visual observations from Tucson (Carl Hergenrother)
Time - Total amount of time each camera looked for meteors 
TOT - Total number of meteors detected
SPO - Sporadics (meteors not affiliated with any particular meteor shower)
NTA - Northern Taurids
STA - Southern Taurids
ORI - Orionids
SLY - September Lyncids
DAU - Delta Aurigids
EGE - Epsilon Geminids
OCA - October Camelopardalids
GIA - Draconids (also called the Giacobinids)
Oth - other minor showers

Mid September Meteors

Finally, for the first time since the peak night of the Perseids we got a few clear nights in Tucson. The nights of Sep 16/17 and 17/18 saw 44 and 37 meteors being detected by the SALSA3 camera system, respectively. Most of the meteors are sporadics meaning they are not affiliated with any known shower. The Orionids (ORI) which will be a major producer of meteors for a few days around its Oct 21 peak were producing a few meteors per night. Other minor showers such as the September Perseids (SPE), September Lyncids (SLY) and Delta Aurigids (DAU) were occasional meteor producers.

A new meteor shower was reported by Petr Jenniskens in the Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams. The Chi Cygnids (CCY) was seen in video data from Europe and California on the nights of Sep 14 and 15 UT. A quick look through my data did not turn up any CCY candidates.

Obs Date(UT)     Time    TOT SPO ANT ORI SPE SLY DAU Oth
SAL 2015-09-20  08h 55m   28  19  3   1   -   1   1   3
SAL 2015-09-19  06h 48m   17  14  0   1   -   0   1   1
SAL 2015-09-18  09h 31m   37  26  4   2   -   1   3   1
SAL 2015-09-17  10h 30m   44  36  4   2   1   0   -   2
SAL 2015-09-16  04h 29m   9   4   2   1   1   0   -   1
SAL 2015-09-15  08h 54m   16  8   2   1   0   3   -   2
SAL 2015-09-14  03h 50m   21  13  1   5   1   0   -   1
SAL 2015-09-13  05h 05m   27  17  4   1   2   2   -   1

SAL - SALSA3 camera in Tucson (Carl Hergenrother)
VIS - Visual observations from Tucson (Carl Hergenrother)
Time - Total amount of time each camera looked for meteors 
TOT - Total number of meteors detected
SPO - Sporadics (meteors not affiliated with any particular meteor shower)
ANT - Antihelions
ORI - Orionids
SPE - September Perseids
SLY - September Lyncids
DAU - Delta Aurigids
Oth - other minor showers

Aug 24-30 Meteors

The usual Arizona monsoon weather kept the number of detected meteors down this past week. We did get one very clear night (Aug 28/29) which saw 38 meteors imaged. That’s a bit higher than expected and for awhile I wondered if a small outburst from an unknown shower had occurred. Instead it seems that all of the background active minor showers were a little more active that night.

Now that the Perseids are done for 2015, we can look forward to this year’s Orionids. These pieces of Comet Halley peak in mid-October. Though we have some time till the Orionids are worth staying up late for, the never tired SALSA3 camera can watch as this shower slowly ramps up in activity.

Obs Date(UT)     Time    TOT SPO ANT ORI SDA KCG AUR Oth
SAL 2015-08-30  08h 25m   17  15  2   0   0   0   0   0
SAL 2015-08-29  09h 49m   38  26  2   3   2   3   2   0
SAL 2015-08-28  03h 14m   8   6   1   1   0   0   0   0
SAL 2015-08-27  04h 05m   18  14  1   2   1   0   0   0
SAL 2015-08-26  04h 43m   11  6   2   -   3   0   0   0
SAL 2015-08-25  00h 00m         --- CLOUDS/RAIN ---
SAL 2015-08-24  00h 20m   1   1   0   0   0   0   -   0

SAL - SALSA3 camera in Tucson (Carl Hergenrother)
VIS - Visual observations from Tucson (Carl Hergenrother)
Time - Total amount of time each camera looked for meteors 
TOT - Total number of meteors detected
SPO - Sporadics (meteors not affiliated with any particular meteor shower)
ANT - Antihelions
ORI - Orionids
SDA - Southern Delta Aquariids
KCG - Kappa Cygnids
Oth - other minor showers

Meteor Activity Outlook for November 10-16, 2012

The following is a slightly edited version of Bob Lunsford’s excellent weekly summary of meteor activity. The original version can be found at the American Meteor Society’s site.

As seen from the northern hemisphere, meteor rates continue to be strong in November. While no major activity is expected this month, the two Taurid radiants plus the Leonids keep the skies active. The addition of strong sporadic rates make November one of the better months to view meteor activity from north of the equator. Skies are fairly quiet as seen from the
southern hemisphere this month. Activity from the three showers mentioned above may be seen from south of the equator, but the sporadic rates are much lower than those seen in the northern hemisphere.

During this period the moon reaches its new phase on Tuesday November 13th. At this time the moon is located near the sun and cannot be seen at night. This weekend the waning crescent moon will rise during the late morning hours, but it will rise so late and be so thin that it will not interfere with meteor observing. As the week progresses the moon will enter the evening sky but will set shortly after dusk, not causing any problems for watching meteor activity. The estimated total hourly meteor rates for evening observers this week is near five for observers located at mid-northern latitudes and three for observers in mid-southern latitudes. For morning observers the estimated total hourly rates should be near twenty from the mid-northern hemisphere and twelve from the mid-southern hemisphere. The actual rates will also depend on factors such as personal light and motion perception, local weather conditions, alertness and experience in watching meteor activity.

The radiant (the area of the sky where meteors appear to shoot from) positions and rates listed below are exact for Saturday night/Sunday morning November 10/11. These positions do not change greatly day to day so the listed coordinates may be used during this entire period.

The following radiants are expected to be active this week:

Remnants from the famous Andromedid (AND) shower, noted for intense storms during the 19th century, may still be seen throughout November. The current position of this large radiant is 01:32 (023) +31 . This position lies on the Pisces/Triangulum border, very close to the large, but faint spiral galaxy known as M33. If you are not familiar with M33, then the nearest bright star is second magnitude Mirach (Beta Andromedae), which lies five degrees to the northwest. The radiant is so diffuse that Andromedid meteors may be seen coming from southern Andromeda, Triangulum, and northwestern Aries as well as eastern Pisces. Visual activity is expected to be low, but detectable. An inconspicuous maximum occurs on November 9, when this source is the 5th most active radiant in the sky. The Andromedid meteors are best seen near 2200 (10pm) local standard time (LST), when the radiant lies on the meridian and lies highest in the sky. At 19km/sec., the average Andromedid will appear as a v
ery slow moving meteor.

The Northern Taurid (NTA) radiant is the most active source of meteor activity this week, producing 3-4 shower members per hour, depending on your location. The radiant is centered at 03:52 (058) +22. This area of the sky lies in  western Taurus just one degree south of the famous naked eye open cluster known as the Pleiades or the Seven Sisters. The radiant is best placed near 0100 LST, when it lies highest above the horizon. Meteors from the Northern Taurids strike the atmosphere at 29km/sec., which would produce meteors of slow velocity. You must face in the general direction of the north and south Taurid radiants in order to tell them apart.

The Southern Taurid (STA) radiant is currently located at 04:00 (060) +15. This position lies in western Taurus, eight degrees southeast of the famous naked eye open cluster known as the Pleiades or the Seven Sisters. This radiant is also best placed near 0100 LST, when it lies on the meridian and is located highest in the sky. Maximum occurred on October 9th, so rates would now be near two per hour , no matter your location. With an entry velocity of 29 km/sec., the average Southern Taurid meteor would be of slow velocity.

The November Orionids (NOO) may be seen in small numbers beginning this week. The peak for this radiant is not until November 30th, so rates would be less than than one shower member per hour, no matter your location. The radiant is located at 05:08 (077) +16. This area of the sky is located on the Orion/Taurus border, seven degrees east of the first magnitude orange star Aldebaran (Alpha Tauri). This location is close to the Taurid complex, but far enough east to be distinguishable. The faster velocity of the November should help distinguish these meteors from the slower, but more numerous Taurids. The radiant is best placed for viewing near 0200 LST when it lies on the meridian and is highest above the horizon. With an entry velocity of 44 km/sec., the November Orionids would be of medium speed.

The Orionids (ORI) are still active but rates are slowing falling with each passing night. The radiant located at 07:28 (112) +16. This area of the sky is located in southern Gemini, twelve degrees east of the second magnitude star Alhena (Gamma Geminorum). The radiant is best placed for viewing near 0400 LST when it lies on the meridian and is highest above the horizon. Orionid meteors are equally well seen either side of the equator. With an entry velocity of 67 km/sec., most activity from this radiant would be swift.

Studies of the IMO video database by Sirko Molau and Juergen Rendtel has revealed a radiant active in the constellation of Cancer this time of year. Rates are weak but detectable under moonless skies. The Zeta Cancrids (ZCN) are active throughout November but activity dates and radiant positions are poorly determined. During this period the radiant lies near 08:24 (126) +08.  This area of the sky is located in southern Cancer, one degree southeast of the third magnitude star Al Tarf (Beta Cancri). This area of the sky may be more easier found using the “head” of Hydra as a guide, as it lies only five degrees to the southeast. The radiant is best placed for viewing near 0500 LST when it lies on the meridian and is highest above the horizon.  With an entry velocity of 70 km/sec., most activity from this radiant would be swift. These meteors can be seen equally well from either side of the equator.

The Leonids (LEO) are now the second most active radiant in the sky, producing 1-2 shower members per hour during the last couple of hours before dawn. The radiant is currently located at 10:00 (150) +24. This position lies in northwestern Leo, within the “sickle” of Leo, three degrees west of the third magnitude star Adhafera (Zeta Leonis). The Leonid radiant is best placed during the last hour before morning twilight when the radiant lies highest in a dark sky. Leonids may be seen from the southern hemisphere but the viewing conditions are not quite as favorable as those north of the equator.

As seen from the mid-northern hemisphere (45N) one would expect to see approximately eleven sporadic meteors per hour during the last hour before dawn as seen from rural observing sites. Evening rates would be near four per hour. As seen from the mid-southern hemisphere (45S), morning rates would be near five per hour as seen from rural observing sites and two per hour during the evening hours. Locations between these two extremes would see activity between the listed figures.

The list below presents a summary of the expected activity this week. Rates and
positions are exact for Saturday night/Sunday morning, but may be used all week.

Andromedids (AND) – 01:32 (023) +31    Velocity 19km/sec
Northern Hemisphere – 1 per hr    Southern Hemisphere – <1 per hour

Northern Taurids (NTA) – 03:52 (058) +22    Velocity 29km/sec
Northern Hemisphere – 4 per hr    Southern Hemisphere – 3 per hour

Southern Taurids (STA) -04:00 (060) +15    Velocity 29km/sec
Northern Hemisphere – 2 per hr    Southern Hemisphere – 2 per hour

November Orionids (NOO)  05:08 (077) +16   Velocity 44km/sec
Northern Hemisphere – <1 per hr    Southern Hemisphere – <1 per hour

Orionids (ORI) 07:28 (112) +16    Velocity 67km/sec
Northern Hemisphere – 1 per hr    Southern Hemisphere – 1 per hour

Zeta Cancrids (ZCN)  08:24 (126) +08    Velocity 70km/sec
Northern Hemisphere – <1 per hr    Southern Hemisphere – <1 per hour

Leonids (LEO) 10:00 (150) +24    Velocity 71km/sec
Northern Hemisphere – 2 per hr    Southern Hemisphere – 1 per hour

Clear Skies!
Robert Lunsford
American Meteor Society

Meteor Activity Outlook for November 3-9, 2012

The following is a slightly edited version of Bob Lunsford’s excellent weekly summary of meteor activity. The original version can be found at the American Meteor Society’s site.

As seen from the northern hemisphere, meteor rates continue to be strong in November. While no major activity is expected this month, the two Taurid radiants plus the Leonids keep the skies active. The addition of strong sporadic rates make November one of the better months to view meteor activity from north of the equator. Skies are fairly quiet as seen from the
southern hemisphere this month. Activity from the three showers mentioned above may be seen from south of the equator, but the sporadic rates are much lower than those seen in the northern hemisphere.

During this period the moon reaches its last quarter phase on Wednesday November 7th. At this time the moon is located ninety degrees west of the sun and well rise near 2300 (11pm) local standard time (LST). This weekend the waning gibbous moon will rise during the late evening hours and will interfere with meteor observing the remainder of the night. As the week progresses the moon will rise later and later, becoming less of a nuisance with each passing night. The estimated total hourly meteor rates for evening observers this week is near four for observers located at mid-northern latitudes and three for observers in mid-southern latitudes. For morning observers the estimated total hourly rates should be near fourteen from the mid-northern hemisphere and eight from the mid-southern hemisphere. The actual rates will also depend on factors such as personal light and motion perception, local weather conditions, alertness and experience in watching meteor activity. Rates during the morning hours are reduced this week due to moonlight.

The radiant (the area of the sky where meteors appear to shoot from) positions and rates listed below are exact for Saturday night/Sunday morning November 3/4. These positions do not change greatly day to day so the listed coordinates may be used during this entire period.

The following radiants are expected to be active this week:

Remnants from the famous Andromedid (AND) shower, noted for intense storms during the 19th century, may still be seen throughout November. The current position of this large radiant is 01:24 (021) +23 . This position lies in eastern Pisces, ten degrees west of the second magnitude star Hamal (Alpha Arietis). The radiant is so diffuse that Andromedid meteors may be seen coming from southern Andromeda, Triangulum, and northwestern Aries as well as eastern Pisces. Visual activity is expected to be low, but detectable. An inconspicuous maximum occurs on November 9, when this source is the 5th most active radiant in the sky. The Andromedid meteors are best seen near 2200 LST, when the radiant lies on the meridian and lies highest in the sky. At 19km/sec., the average Andromedid will appear as a very slow moving meteor.

The Northern Taurids (NTA) are now active from a large radiant centered at 03:28 (052) +21. This area of the sky lies on the Aries/Taurus border, five degrees southwest of the famous naked eye open cluster known as the Pleiades or the Seven Sisters. The radiant is best placed near 0100 LST, when it lies highest above the horizon. Maximum activity is not expected until November 13, so current rates would be 2-3 per hour, no matter your location. Meteors from the Northern Taurids strike the atmosphere at 29km/sec., which would produce meteors of slow velocity.  You must face in the general direction of the north and south Taurid radiants in order to tell them apart.

The Southern Taurid (STA) radiant is currently located at 03:36 (054) +13. This position lies in western Taurus, ten degrees south of the famous naked eye open cluster known as the Pleiades or the Seven Sisters. This radiant is best placed near 0100 LST, when it lies on the meridian and is located highest in the sky. Maximum occurred on October 9th, so rates would now be near one per hour when the radiant lies high in the sky. With an entry velocity of 29 km/sec., the average Southern Taurid meteor would be of slow velocity.

The Orionids (ORI) are still the second most active shower this upcoming week producing up to two shower members per hour from a radiant located at 07:04 (106) +16. This area of the sky is located in southern Gemini, five degrees east of the second magnitude star Alhena (Gamma Geminorum). The radiant is best placed for viewing near 0400 LST when it lies on the meridian and is highest above the horizon. Orionid meteors are equally well seen either side of the equator. With an entry velocity of 67 km/sec., most activity from this radiant would be swift.

The Leonids (LEO) are actually active in small numbers during the morning hours in early November. The radiant is currently located at 09:36 (144) +28. This position lies in  northwestern Leo,  four degrees northwest of the fourth magnitude star Mu Leonis. Rates are only one per hour at best but will increase as the moon exits the morning sky. The Leonid radiant is best placed during the last hour before morning twilight when the radiant lies highest in a dark sky. Leonids may be seen from the southern hemisphere but the viewing conditions are not quite as favorable as those north of the equator.

As seen from the mid-northern hemisphere (45N) one would expect to see approximately seven sporadic meteors per hour during the last hour before dawn as seen from rural observing sites. Evening rates would be near three per hour. As seen from the mid-southern hemisphere (45S), morning rates would be near three per hour as seen from rural observing sites and two per hour during the evening hours. Locations between these two extremes would see activity between the listed figures. Rates during the morning hours are reduced this week due to moonlight.

The list below presents a summary of the expected activity this week. Rates and
positions are exact for Saturday night/Sunday morning, but may be used all week.

Andromedids (AND) – 01:24 (021) +23   Velocity 19km/sec
Northern Hemisphere – 1 per hr   Southern Hemisphere – <1 per hour

Northern Taurids (NTA) – 03:28 (052) +21   Velocity 29km/sec
Northern Hemisphere – 3 per hr   Southern Hemisphere – 2 per hour

Southern Taurids (STA) – 03:36 (054) +13   Velocity 29km/sec
Northern Hemisphere – 1 per hr   Southern Hemisphere – 1 per hour

Orionids (ORI) 07:04 (106) +16   Velocity 67km/sec
Northern Hemisphere – 2 per hr   Southern Hemisphere – 2 per hour

Leonids (LEO) 09:36 (144) +28   Velocity 71km/sec
Northern Hemisphere – <1 per hr   Southern Hemisphere – <1 per hour

Clear Skies!
Robert Lunsford
American Meteor Society

Orionids Peak This Weekend

Everyone know that the most famous comet is Comet Halley. Once every 76 years or so, Hally visits the inner Solar System. Sometimes is can be quite spectacular (such as in 1910), other times not so much (as in 1986). For those that missed Halley in ’86, it will be back again in 2061. If you don’t want to wait that long, there is a way to see pieces of Halley every year. Dust released by Halley over the past few thousand years produce meteor showers in early May (the η-Aquariids) and mid-October (the Orionids).

Computer simulations of the past movements of Halley and its dust suggest that many of this year’s Orionid meteors were released by Halley between 1265 BC and 910 BC (for some points of reference, the Trojan War took place around 1200 BC and King David ruled around 1000 BC).

This year the Orionids are forecast to peak tonight (Oct 20/21) though this shower usually produces high rates for a few days on either side of its peak time. According to the Live ZHR page on the International Meteor Organization’s page, rates last night reached a ZHR of 20-30. Tonight rates should be a little better, probably between 30-40. ZHR’s been as high as 70 per hour in the past but during the last 2 years ZHRs only reached 35-45 per hour. This year’s activity should be similar to the last few years.

The Orionids appear to come from an area in northern Orion. This area, called the radiant, rises around 10pm local time. It is best to wait till the radiant is high in the sky before looking for meteors (say 1am). The radiant is highest around 3:30am which is the best time to look. Meteors can appear anywhere in the sky so you don’t have to look at the radiant. The chart below is for around 3-4am local time and shows the radiant and directions of the Orionids.

.

Hints for watching the Orionids:

  1. Orionid meteors are not visible before ~10-11 pm. Even then the radiant is too low to see many meteors. It is best to go out sometime between 2 am and the start of dawn.
  2. Even though the Zenithal Hourly Rate (ZHR) for the Orionids may be as high as 40 per hour this year.  Most people will see fewer meteors. The ZHR is calculated for perfect conditions (radiant overhead, dark skies, and no obstructions in your view). If you observe from rural areas where the Milky Way is bright and obvious you might see 40 per hour. Suburban skies were the Milky Way is just barely visible will probably only produce 10-20 per hour. City observers will see only a few per hour.
  3. It may take some time to see some meteors. Going out for a minute or two won’t cut it. Plan to spend at least 30 minutes of more outside. Also allow your eyes some time to get adapted to the dark. It will take at least 10-20 minutes after walking out of a well-lit house to start seeing faint enough to see most Orionids.
  4. Find a spot that is safe, free of as many obstructions (trees, buildings, etc) as possible and free of annoying lights shining in your face. This is not always possible these days. You don’t need to look directly at the radiant. In fact, it is better to place the radiant just outside your field of view. As long as you do this, it won’t matter what direction you look in.
  5. Be prepared to be cold. The early October mornings can get very chilly. Dress warm and bring a blanket. Also plan to be as comfortable as possible. A nice reclining chair works great. It will keep your neck from being strained and keep you off of the cold ground.
  6. Enjoy the show! The split second meteors are tiny dust grains from Comet Halley released thousands of years ago; are hitting the Earth’s atmosphere at speeds of ~40 miles per second (~66 km per second) and are burning up 60 miles (100 km) above your head.

Meteor Activity Outlook for October 20-26, 2012

The following is a slightly edited version of Bob Lunsford’s excellent weekly summary of meteor activity. The original version can be found at the American Meteor Society’s site.

Meteor activity in general increases in October when compared to September. A major shower (the Orionids) is active all month long with many minor showers. Both branches of the Taurids become more active as the month progresses, providing slow, graceful meteors to the nighttime scene. The Orionids are the big story of the month reaching maximum activity on the 22nd. This display can be seen equally well from both hemispheres which definitely helps out observers located in the sporadic-poor southern hemisphere this time of year.

During this period the moon reaches its first quarter phase on Sunday October 21st. At this time the moon is located ninety degrees east of the sun and well set near 2300 (11pm) local daylight time (LDT). As the week progresses the waxing gibbous moon will set later and later in the morning, interfering with meteor observing. The estimated total hourly meteor rates for evening observers this week is near three for observers located at mid-northern latitudes and two for observers in mid-southern latitudes. For morning observers the estimated total hourly rates should be near thirty eight from the mid-northern hemisphere and twenty seven from the mid-southern hemisphere. The actual rates will also depend on factors such as personal light and motion perception, local weather conditions, alertness and experience in watching meteor activity. Rates during the evening hours are reduced this week due to moonlight.

The radiant (the area of the sky where meteors appear to shoot from) positions and rates listed below are exact for Saturday night/Sunday morning October 20/21. These positions do not change greatly day to day so the listed coordinates may be used during this entire period.

The following radiants are expected to be active this week:

The Northern Taurids (NTA) are now active from a large radiant centered at 02:40 (040) +19, which lies in central Aries, eight degrees southeast of the second magnitude star Hamal (Alpha Arietis). The radiant is best placed near 0200 local daylight time (LDT), when it lies highest above the horizon. Maximum activity is not expected until November 13, so current rates would be 1-2 per hour, no matter your location. Meteors from the Northern Taurids strike the atmosphere at 29km/sec., which would produce meteors of slow velocity.  You must face in the general direction of the north and south Taurid radiants in order to tell them apart.

The Southern Taurid (STA) radiant is currently located at 02:48 (042) +11. This position lies near on the Cetus/Aries border, very close the the fourth magnitude star Mu Ceti. This radiant is best placed near 0200 local daylight time (LDT), when it lies on the meridian and is located highest in the sky. Maximum occurred on October 9th, so rates would now be near two per hour when the radiant lies high in the sky. With an entry velocity of 29 km/sec., the average Southern Taurid meteor would be of slow velocity.

The Orionids (ORI) reach maximum activity on mornings of October 21st and 22nd. The radiant is currently located at 06:20 (095) +16, which is in the northeastern Orion, four degrees west of the second magnitude star Alhena (Gamma Geminorum). The radiant is best placed for viewing near 0500 when it lies on the meridian and is highest above the horizon. At this time of night one should be able to count at least 20 shower members per hour from rural locations. Good rates can actually be seen any time during the morning hours. Orionid meteors are equally well seen either side of the equator. With an entry velocity of 67 km/sec., most activity from this radiant would be swift. This display does not have a sharp peak so activity seen after moon set after the 22nd should be good. Unfortunately the moon will begin to interfere late in the week.

The Epsilon Geminids (EGE) are active all month long with low hourly rates. Even at maximum activity only three shower members per hour are expected. Recent research by the IMO has indicated an earlier maximum of October 15th, rather than October 19th. The radiant position is currently located at 06:56 (104) +28. This position lies in northern Gemini, four degrees northeast of the fourth magnitude star Mebsuta (Epsilon Geminorum). The radiant is also best placed during the last dark hour before dawn, when it lies highest above the horizon in a dark sky. Rates would be near two per hour as seen from the northern hemisphere and less than one per hour as seen south of the equator. With an entry velocity of 70 km/sec., most activity from this radiant would be swift.

The Leonis Minorids (LMI) are active from October 16-27 with maximum activity occurring on October 23rd. This radiant is currently located at 10:36 (159) +37, which places it in northeast Leo Minor, four degrees northeast of the fourth magnitude star Beta Leonis Minoris . The radiant is best placed just before dawn when it lies highest in a dark sky. This shower is better situated for observers situated in the northern hemisphere where the radiant rises far higher into the sky before the start of morning twilight. At 60km/sec., the average Leonis Minorid is swift.

As seen from the mid-northern hemisphere (45N) one would expect to see approximately ten sporadic meteors per hour during the last hour before dawn as seen from rural observing sites. Evening rates would be near two per hour. As seen from the mid-southern hemisphere (45S), morning rates would be near five per hour as seen from rural observing sites and one per hour during the evening hours. Locations between these two extremes would see activity between the listed figures. Rates during the evening hours are reduced this week due to moonlight.

The list below presents a summary of the expected activity this week. Rates and
positions are exact for Saturday night/Sunday morning, but may be used all week.

Northern Taurids (NTA) – 02:40 (040) +19   Velocity 29km/sec
Northern Hemisphere – 2 per hr   Southern Hemisphere – 2 per hour

Southern Taurids (STA) -02:48 (042) +11   Velocity 29km/sec
Northern Hemisphere – 2 per hr   Southern Hemisphere – 2 per hour

Orionids (ORI) 06:20 (095) +16   Velocity 67km/sec
Northern Hemisphere – 20 per hr   Southern Hemisphere – 18 per hour

Epsilon Geminids (EGE) 06:56 (104) +28   Velocity 70km/sec
Northern Hemisphere – 2 per hr   Southern Hemisphere – <1 per hour

Leonis Minorids (LMI) – 10:36 (159) +37   Velocity 60km/sec
Northern Hemisphere – 2 per hr   Southern Hemisphere – <1 per hour

Clear Skies!
Robert Lunsford
American Meteor Society

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 110 other followers